10-9.1     DEMOCRACY and DICTATORSHIP  –  SYNOPSIS 

POWER is a theme we studied during this school year.

Politics is the use of power, expressed by government in the “polis”, human society through the relationship of individuals and the group or “state”.

We have studied the “problem” of power

ANARCHY/CHAOS – (no/not enough government power’

and “TYRANNY”too much government power.

The “question[s]” of POWER: 

Can INDIVIDUALS be trusted to govern themselves?   

Can you trust the STATE? 

“Democrats” say yes.  Dictators no. (to individuals)

“Dictatorships” say yes.  Democrats say no. (to “the collective” – Borg)

We have seen POWER expressed through DEMOCRATIC IDEALS (British government, the American Revolution, Gandhi, M.L. King, Jr., Mandela and in “Walkout”).

We have seen POWER expressed through “totalitarian” DICTATORSHIP. (e.g. Hitler, Stalin)

There have existed, in every age and every country, two distinct orders of men – the lovers of freedom [of self from others] and the devoted advocates of power [over others]. – Robert Hayne

“DEMOCRACY”                         “DICTATORSHIP”

“POWER”

power “questioned”                   power is the “answer”, the “means” to “end”

against the dangers of tyranny                            dangers of anarchy/chaos

“When the people fear their government, there is tyranny; when the government fears the people, there is liberty” – Jefferson

“Power corrupts –  (necessary evil)         “will to power”  (a desired good)

Power “CORRUPTS”                                                    POWER “CORRECTS”

“No one is FIT to rule”                          “ONLY FORCE RULES … the FIRST LAW”

– Lord Acton)                                                               – Hitler

“I BELIEVE in ONE THING ONLY, the POWER of the HUMAN  WILL” – Stalin

GOVERNMENT

LIMITED government                                                    “TOTALITARIAN” government

power divided (to prevent tragic bad)    concentrated (create utopian good)

govt. to protect individual rights             govt. to provide “collective good”

protect us (as individuals) from each other       provide” (collectively)

“I am NOT a FRIEND to a very energetic It is always oppressive”- Jefferson

Dictator Mussolini termed TOTALITARIAN “benevolent” (bene = good)

democracy – “Government isn’t the solution to our problems,

dictatorship – society everybody “belonged”

government IS the problem.” – Ronald Reagan

all “taken care of”, everything was inside, nothing outside” the STATE – Mussolini

“Things in our country run in spite of government,  not by the aid of it.” – Will Rogers

“The NAZI Party must NOT become servant of the masses, but their MASTER!”

individual “pursuit of happiness”                     group (the state “social engineering”)

life’s tragic limitations – utopia = “nowhere”         utopian possibilities – “heaven on earth”

“Give me liberty or give me death”  – Patrick Henry

The day of  individual happiness has PASSED” – Hitler

“The COMMON GOOD SUPERCEDES the PRIVATE GOOD”

POLITICAL  “SCIENCE”:

“experiment” in self-government         “experiment” in “utopia”; “progress

DEMOCRATIC “IDEALS”                             DEMOCRATIC “DESPOTISM”

human capacity to “REASON” – “FACTS”             ”ROMANTICISM”  –  “FEELINGS”

political “science” – the study of “nature”

“How fortunate for governments that the applying  nature’s “laws” to human society  people they administer don’t think” – Hitler

For Aristotle, politics was the “master science”;

“I use emotion for the many and reserve an understanding of our own society and the world around us. reason for the few.” – Hitler

republic –elected representatives vs.  great leader (born); cult of personality

“popular (the people) sovereignty (power)”         power sourced in the state

power sourced in “we the people”(voters)        elite leaders know

what people need, not want

Locke – individual rights protected    Hobbes–Leviathan–all powerful ruler

by voluntary, limited govt. – “will of ruled”

prevents nature’s “the war of all against all”

“Democracy is the worst form of government, except all the others.” – Churchill                    

The people who cast the votes decide nothing. The people who count the votes decide everything.” – Stalin

“You can fool all of the people some of the people, and some of the people, but you cannot FOOL all of the people all of the time.” – Lincoln                

“Sooner will a camel pass through a need great man be “discovered” by an ELECTION” –                                                                                                             

“The NAZI Party must NOT become a SERVANT of the masses, but their MASTER!”– Hitler

HUMAN NATURE, RELIGION and “VALUES”  

Judeo-Christian human “dignity”, “respect” as “children of God”,  the “sanctity” of life

vs.

“Death solves all problems. No man, no problems”- Stalin

“The DEATH of ONE MAN is a TRAGEDY. The DEATH of  MILLIONS is a STATISTIC.” Stalin

*

The dignity of man requires obedience to a higher law – to the strength of the spirit.  

vs.                           

Humanitarianism is the expression of stupidity and cowardice                                       

“I am FREEING man from the restraints of intelligence” and a DEGRADING … FALSE VISION called CONSCIENCE and  MORALITY” – Hitler

*

Non-violence affords the fullest protection to one’s self-respect and sense of honor.”- Gandhi

individual “conscience”; sources of morality

vs.

group/state conformity and “correct-ness”

*

separation of Church (not God) and State

vs.

one state “civic-political” religion

*

freedom of religion; individual choice

vs.

Marx: religion is “opiate” of the masses

*

“Every man ought to be protected in worshipping the Deity according to the dictates of his own conscience.” – George Washington

vs.

FASCISM  is a RELIGION” – the state becomes “god”; “worker’s paradise

“Ideas are more powerful than guns. We would not let our enemies have guns, why should we let them have ideas.” – Stalin

*

Gandhi’s “Satyagraha”– truth and moral courage, nonviolent civil disobedience to injustice

vs.

totalitarian “worldview” of “conflict”

Marx – violent worldwide revolution

*

harmony-altruism – through power of “spirit”

vs.

hostilty-alienation: dictatorship of the proletariat;power of “struggle”

*

Gandhi rejected materialism

vs.

history is material- economic class warfare (haves vs. have-nots)

*

“Non-violence is the law of the human race as violence is the law of the brute. (animal) – Gandhi 

vs.                              

“I do not see why man should not be just as CRUEL as NATURE” – Hitler

*

”Hate cannot drive out hate; only love can do that.” – M.L. King, Jr.

vs.

“The very first essential for success is the constant  and regular employment  of VIOLENCE” – Hitler

*

POWER, GOVERNMENT and “RIGHTS”

individual “natural rights” – freedom of individual “expression”

vs.

We have to PUT a STOP everybody’s civil rights to SAY whatever he pleases” – Hitler

*

due process” of law – “civil rights”  pluralism / diversity / tolerance

vs.

state TERROR, “purges”, “show trials” of “enemies of the state”

*

“Judge me by the content of my [individual] character”- M.L. King, Jr.

vs.

uniformity/collective “correctness” censorship; state control of information

*

“I do not agree with what you have to say, but I’ll defend to the death your right to say it.” Voltaire

vs

propaganda – state dictated truth/”pravda”

EDUCATION

“liberal”education; cultural assimilation

vs.

“totalitarian”,state-run political indoctrination

public, “universal” education of “masses”

vs.

“political correctness” – mass conformity

*

teaching individual “citizenship”/”pursuit of happiness”

vs.

teaching state/social control/censorship

*

I have sworn on the altar of God eternal hostility against every form of tyranny over the mind of man”              

vs.

“Education must serve proletarian  politics and must be combined with productive labor.” – Mao

Education is a weapon whose effects depends on who holds it in their hands, and at who it is aimed.” – Stalin

*

Education is a better safeguard of liberty than a standing army.” – Edward Everett

Jefferson starts University of Virginia his book collection starts the Library of Congress                                                                                            

vs

Universal education is the most corroding and disintegrating POISON that liberalism has ever invented for its own destruction.” – Hitler